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百瓦级高效推移活塞型脉管制冷机实验研究
吴彦康, 陈曦, 郑朴, 周振东, 叶天, 张华
0
(上海理工大学能源与动力工程学院 上海 200093)
摘要:
推移活塞型脉管制冷机采用推移活塞进行相位调节和声功回收,潜在制冷效率高。针对制冷温度-100 ℃左右,当前研究缺乏同时满足大冷量和高效率的推移活塞型脉管制冷机。本文设计一台应用于低温冷库的百瓦级制冷量的推移活塞型脉管制冷机,实验测试其制冷性能,重点关注推移活塞运动和压缩机效率。基于验证后的数值模型,分析脉管冷指与压缩机的耦合关系及冷指内部相位关系。结果表明,当充气压力3.0 MPa,运行频率64.9 Hz,水冷温度20 ℃,输入电功500 W时,该推移活塞型脉管制冷机可在-100 ℃提供160.3 W制冷量,相对卡诺效率为22.2 %。此时推移活塞领先压缩活塞59 °,冷指内部相位分布合理,压缩机与冷指耦合良好,压缩机效率为78 %。该制冷机为目前-100 ℃制冷温度附近效率最高的推移活塞型脉管制冷机。
关键词:  脉管低温制冷机  低温冷藏  推移活塞  相位调节  声功回收
DOI:
投稿时间:2023-09-18  修订日期:2023-12-12   录用日期:2024-01-15
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
Experimental Study on a Hundred-Watt Highly-Efficient Displacer-Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler
Abstract:
The displacer-type pulse tube cryocooler employs a displacer for phase adjustment and the recovery of acoustic power, resulting in the potential for high refrigeration efficiency. Currently, there is a lack of research on highly-efficient displacer-type pulse tube cryocoolers with large cooling capacity around -100 ℃. In this paper, we present the design of a hundred-watt displacer-type pulse tube cryocooler applied in low-temperature freezers and experimentally assess its performance, with a particular focus on displacer motion and compressor efficiency. Based on a validated numerical model, we analyze the coupling relationship between the pulse tube and the compressor, as well as the internal phase relationship of the cold finger. It is observed that, when operating with a charging pressure of 3.0 MPa, a frequency of 64.9 Hz, a cooling water temperature of 20 ℃, and an input electrical power of 500 W, the displacer-type pulse tube cryocooler can provide 160.3 W of cooling capacity at -100 ℃, achieving a relative Carnot efficiency of 22.2 %. Meanwhile, the displacer leads the compressor by 59 °, the internal phase distribution of the pulse tube is deemed to be rational, and the coupling between the compressor and the cold finger exhibits a satisfying compressor efficiency of 78 %. This cryocooler stands as the most efficient displacer-type pulse tube cryocooler around -100 ℃.
Key words:  Pulse tube cryogenic cryocooler  Hypothermic storage  Displacer  Phase shift  Acoustic power recovery

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