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超音速两相膨胀分离及制冷液化的研究进展
陈宝生1, 曾钰培1, 邹爱红1, 罗二仓1,2
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(1.中国科学院理化技术研究所低温工程学重点实验室 北京;2.中国科学院大学 北京)
摘要:
超音速膨胀降温并结合旋流分离技术是一种新型气体液化分离技术,近年来主要应用于分离多组份气体中的高凝点组份。本文介绍了超音速旋流分离器的两种典型结构;归纳了Laval喷管中凝结相变的理论发展、数值模拟、实验研究和分子模拟四大方面内容;对超音速旋流分离器中的激波问题、结构优化进行了分析总结;大量实验及现场应用证明了超音速旋流分离器具有节能环保、无运动部件、无需添加化学药剂等优势,在天然气净化处理等领域已得到了广泛的应用。下一步研究可以从单组份、多组份气体凝结相变机理、提升液化效率等方面入手,促进超音速旋流分离技术在普冷温区、氢氦低温温区的液化及制冷技术应用。
关键词:  超音速旋流分离器  Laval喷管  激波  结构优化
DOI:
投稿时间:2023-06-01  修订日期:2023-08-02   录用日期:2023-08-21
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2021YFB4000700)
Research progress of supersonic two-phase expansion separation and refrigeration liquefaction
Abstract:
Supersonic expansion cooling combined with swirl separation technology is a novel method to realize gas liquefaction separation, which is mainly employed to separate high freezing point components from multi-component gases in recent years. In this article,first,two typical structures of supersonic swirl separators are introduced in this paper. Thereafter,the theoretical development, numerical simulation, experimental research and molecular simulation of condensation phase transformation in Laval nozzle are summarized. Subsequently,the shock wave problem and structure optimization are analyzed and recapitulated. A large number of experiments and field applications have proved that the device has the advantages of energy saving and environmental protection, no moving parts, no need to add chemical agents and so on, which has been widely used in the field of natural gas purification treatment. The next research can start from the condensation phase transformation mechanism of single-component and multi-component gases and from improving the liquefaction efficiency, so as to promote the application of supersonic swirl separation technology in the liquefaction and refrigeration technology in the general cold temperature zone and the low temperature zone of hydrogen and helium.
Key words:  Supersonic swirl separation device  Laval nozzle  Shock wave  Structure optimization

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